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Testicular Cancer

This form of cancer is both treatable and curable. Is one of your testicles enlarged, or swollen? Is it painful? If a tumor is suspected, you should schedule an appointment with a urologist to confirm or rule out testicular cancer as a possibility.

Testicular cancer is a rare cancer, comprising only 1% of all cancers, and can affect a male of any age but is the most common form of cancer in men 15 to 40 years old. It is very treatable and shows itself on examination as a firm lump or mass, usually in one testicle.

Symptoms of testicular cancer are:

  • Painless lump, swelling, ache, or heavy feeling in the testicle
  • Ache or changes in male breast tissue
  • Back pain, lung, abdomen, pelvis, brain symptoms if cancer has spread

The urologists at AUCNY may diagnose this cancer from non-cancerous conditions which may give similar symptoms using some of the following:

  • Epididymitis – swelling of the epididymis treated with antibiotics
  • Testicular torsion – twisting of the testicle treated surgically
  • Inguinal hernia – a breach of the intestine through a defect in the abdominal muscle near the groin often treated surgically
  • Hydrocele — a buildup of scrotal fluid often requiring drainage

 Risk factors include:

  • Family history of testicular cancer, especially in white men, and ages 15 to 35
  • Abnormal testicular development (due to chromosomal abnormality) or undescended testicle (cryptorchidism) even if surgically relocated

Diagnostic testing by AUCNY urologist may include:

  • Detailed history and physical examination – requesting details on symptoms, personal and family medical history, social history including smoking habits, physical examination with special emphasis on the testicles and scrotum looking for a mass through which the light of a flashlight does not penetrate suggesting a solid non-fluid-filled mass or tumor.
  • Ultrasound imaging – to create an image of the scrotal/testicular structures
  • Blood tests – to look for certain tumor markers (AFP, LDH, HCG) which are naturally occurring substances that, when, elevated, are associated with cancer
  • Chest x-ray, bone scan, CT, MRI, PET scan – imaging procedures to define the presence, extent, size, and location of tumors including possible spread past the initially involved organ
  • Surgery – to remove the testicle and perform microscopic/pathologic studies and exploration of the draining lymph nodes if necessary to determine if cancer has spread, with or without lymph node exploration

Treatment Options

Testicular cancer is both treatable and curable. Based upon your diagnostic test results, your AUCNY doctor will recommend the most appropriate course of care for you.

Treatment choices of the AUCNY urologist include:

  • Surgery to remove the testicle with or without lymph node exploration
  • Chemotherapy with or without surgery
  • Radiation with or without surgery – Radiation – our colleagues at Advanced Radiation Centers of New York (ARC) team with our AUCNY doctors to provide state-of-the-art treatment options to fight testicular cancer that has spread. With eight conveniently located facilities throughout five counties, you will be near an ARC facility that will provide the care you need. To learn more about radiation treatments from our trusted partners, visit

There is no known method of prevention other than early detection involving frequent self-examination.state-of-the-art

Urological Conditions & Treatments

Urological Cancers & Treatments